The State of Science and Technology in Canada is an in-depth analysis of the scientific disciplines and technological applications where Canada excels in a global context. It identifies Canada’s S&T research strengths, highlights emerging areas of S&T, and provides insights on regional areas of specialization. It also addresses improvements and declines in specific research fields. The collective findings are comprehensive and represent one of the most in-depth examinations of Canadian S&T ever undertaken. This assessment was requested by Industry Canada via the Minister of Industry in November 2010. The assessment was conducted by an 18-member multidisciplinary panel of experts, chaired by Dr. Eliot A. Phillipson, Sir John and Lady Eaton Professor of Medicine Emeritus at the University of Toronto and past President and CEO of the Canada Foundation for Innovation.